(4) Potassium permanganate readily removes the offensive smell 간석동오피 of stagnant water, but it gives a yellow tint to the water. The addition of a little alum will help to carry down the decomposed permanganate.

(5) Perchloride of Iron, in the proportion of 2½ grains to a gallon of water, has been found to completely purify water from finely suspended organic matters and clay.

(6) More recently, other substances, such as iodine and hyposulphite of soda, have been recommended. These are supposed to act by sterilizing the water, and iodine in suitable quantities undoubtedly effects this.

Chemical processes for the purification of water, with the exception of the softening process, are not to be recommended for general use. Efficient filtration, or boiling, is safer than chemical treatment; and it would only be justifiable to trust to the latter, when, as in a military campaign, an attempt at purification was necessary, and no means were available for filtering or boiling water.

7. Filtration.—The object of filtration is to remove the impurities of water. The most dangerous impurities are suspended in it, especially the microbes causing infectious diseases. Hence the most perfect filter is the one which most completely prevents the passage through it of microbes. If the water supply is pure, domestic filtration is not only useless, but likely to do more harm than good. This is true for such upland surface waters as those supplied to Liverpool, Glasgow, and Manchester; for such deep96 well-water supplies as those of Brighton (deep chalk), of Nottingham (new red sandstone), and others, when pumped from wells remote from inhabited houses. For upland surface waters known to attack lead pipes, filtration through charcoal or spongy iron may be advisable; for river water, filtration through a germ-proof filter is best.

Filtration on a large scale is generally carried on as follows:—A preliminary step consists in collecting the water into settling reservoirs, wherein the more bulky substances subside. The water is then filtered through beds of gravel and sand, containing perforated tubular drains below, into which the filtered water flows. The drains are covered by a bed of gravel about 3 feet deep, over which is spread a layer of sand about 1½ to 2 feet deep. Sharp angular particles of sand are the best; and the gravel should gradually increase in its coarseness as it descends.

The effect of this filtration is chiefly mechanical; it separates any suspended matter, whether organic or inorganic. A certain amount of biological action possibly also takes place. Piefke found that a perfectly cleaned and sterilised filter when first used, increases the microbes in water, instead of decreasing them. Gradually a gelatinous layer of slimy matter is formed on the top of the sand; the water now filters through much more slowly, but it gradually becomes freer from microbes, these being intercepted by the slimy layer. It is important that this layer should not be disturbed by too rapid or forced filtration, and that when the surface layer requires to be removed, because the filter has become impervious, time should be allowed for another thin film to form before the filtered water is again utilised. Koch concluded that the rapidity of filtration should never be allowed to exceed 100 millimetres (about 4 inches) per hour; and that the number of microbes per c.c. in the filtered water should never exceed 100. Some oxidation of organic matter, as well as detention of microbes, may take place during the filtration of water, nitrates being formed by the vital activity of certain “nitrifying” microbes in the filter. (On nitrification, see pages 195 and 274.) P. Frankland’s observations show that the number of microbes in Thames water is reduced by filtration through sand and gravel beds, as practised by the London Water Companies, so that only 3·4 per cent. of those originally present remained. He also concludes that the majority of the microbes present in filtered water are derived from post-filtration sources. Thus the number is greater in tap-water than in water derived from near the reservoirs.

Other materials besides sand have been used for filtration on a large scale, but none with proved success.

Domestic Filtration ought, as already explained, not to be needed, but circumstances often arise in which the public supply is open to suspicion, and a second domestic line of defence against infection through the water supply is desirable. When this is so, the form of filter which will best protect the household is one attached to the house-tap, so that all drinking-water is perforce filtered. When filtering involves the transfer of water from the97 tap to the interior of the filter, opportunity is left for carelessness or forgetfulness. The one essential point of a domestic filter is that it will prevent the passage through it of microbes. Every filter must be tested from this standpoint.

On this point the experiments of Woodhead and Cartwright Wood are conclusive. They first of all experimented on various filters with fine artificial ultramarine containing particles 16 µ to 0·6 µ or even less in diameter in suspension; and milk containing granules and globules of fat 0·5 µ to 30 µ or more in diameter, freely diluted with water.

Silicated carbon filter 68 ++ +++
Carbon filter 18 + +++
Maignen’s Filtre Rapide 4 0 ++
Spongy iron filter 14 0 +++
Pasteur-Chamberland filter 420 0 0
Berkefeld filter 140 0 0
The number + indicates the relative amount of the experimental substances that made their way through the filtering medium.

Experiments were then made with the actual microbes of certain infectious diseases, and it was found that certain filters allow these to pass. Thus a silicated carbon filter allowed 1,000 out of 15,000 typhoid bacilli suspended in water to pass through its substance; a manganous carbon filter allowed 600 to 800 out of 10,000 cholera vibrios to pass through; Maignen’s filter on the second day of experiment allowed 150 out of 5,000 cholera vibrios to pass through; Lipscombe’s charcoal filter experimentally only reduced typhoid bacilli from 20,000 to 5,000; the magnetic carbide filter only reduced them from 20,000 to 10,000; the spongy iron filter from 20,000 to 3,000; while, on the contrary, the Pasteur-Chamberland and the Berkefeld filter completely stopped all microbes and produced a sterile water. (As to these two, see page 98.)

Of the materials enumerated animal charcoal was formerly regarded as an excellent filtering medium. It is capable of oxidising organic matter dissolved in water, but so far from sterilizing water, it favours the growth of microbes in it. 간석동오피 Water filtered through charcoal, after the first few days of use of the charcoal, deteriorates, as the charcoal yields up impurities to it.

Manganous Carbon consists of animal charcoal and black oxide of manganese mixed with oil, and heated strongly together out of contact with the air. The oxidising power of the carbon is said to be thus greatly increased. It shares the objections to carbon.

Silicated Carbon consists of 75 per cent. of charcoal and 22 per cent. of silica, with a little oxide of iron and alumina. It is not an efficient filtering medium.


Spongy iron is prepared by the reduction of hæmatite ore with fusion, so that the iron is obtained in a porous and finely-divided condition. The Rivers Pollution Commissioners found spongy iron to be “a very active agent, not only in removing organic matter from water, but also in materially reducing its hardness, and otherwise altering its character.” It is a powerful oxidising agent, some of the water being decomposed, and hydrogen set free, and the oxygen acting upon any organic matter present. It also removes lead from water. As already seen, it does not, however, fulfil the primary object of water, by depriving it of any microbes contained in it.

Magnetic carbide of iron is obtained by heating hæmatite ore with sawdust. Its action is similar to that of spongy iron.

The Pasteur-Chamberland filter consists of a cylinder of unglazed fine porcelain made from a well-baked Kaolin of a certain degree of porosity and hardness. (Fig. 10.)

The water passes through the porcelain from without inwards, and with the pressure of 1½ to 2½ atmospheres which is usually present in the pipes of a water-service, passes through at the rate of about three quarts per hour. The filter can easily be cleaned by brushing it in a stream of hot water, or by subjecting to the heat of a Bunsen burner. The filtration is entirely mechanical, the filtered water being quite freed of microbes. No chemical action takes place.

Fig. 10.
Pasteur-Chamberland Filter.

A.—Outlet of filtered water. B.—Pasteur tube. C.—Metal tube containing unfiltered water. D.—Unfiltered water delivered through tap.

The Berkefeld filter is cylindrical like the Pasteur-Chamberland filter, and is used in the same way. It is made of infusorial earth, which is soft and friable and liable to break. The cylinder becomes gradually worn thin by cleaning, and it then ceases to filter efficiently. Its sole advantage99 over the Pasteur-Chamberland filter is the more rapid rate of filtration; and against this is to be set the greater liability to fracture and the lack of continuance of efficient filtration. Woodhead and Wood in the report already quoted, state: “The Berkefeld filter appears to have the largest pores among the efficient filters, as is evidenced by the fact that the water organisms were not apparently weakened, that more species of organisms appeared in its filtrate, and that lowering the temperature to 11° C. did not prevent their appearance. The Pasteur-Chamberland filter, on the other hand, at 11° C. was able to give an apparently sterile filtrate for a prolonged period.” More recent experiments have shewn that pathogenic (disease-producing) microbes contained in water after awhile grow through the substance of a Berkefeld filter, and that this does not happen with a Pasteur-Chamberland filter. The latter is therefore preferable.

In determining the number of bougies required for any filter to secure a given amount of pure water, it is necessary to calculate on the basis of the output after several weeks’ use, not on the original output. If this is done, pure water will be secured without disappointment as to the amount supplied.


An abundant supply of fresh air is necessary at all times. And yet its importance is commonly ignored in practical life. Strenuous efforts are made to ensure a supply of food, and water is commonly filtered or otherwise purified before drinking; but many are content to live in an impure atmosphere, which hardly suffices for the preservation of life, and certainly not of health. Deprivation of food, or even of water, only kills after several days or weeks; deprivation of air kills in a few minutes. Only about three pints of water are required daily, while at least 1,500 gallons of air are necessary every day for carrying on the vital functions.

Composition of Air.—The air constitutes a gaseous ocean in which we live, as fishes live in water. In virtue of its weight, it exerts a pressure of about 15 lbs. on every square inch. This pressure is usually measured by the barometer, and is equivalent on an average to that of a column of 30 inches of quicksilver. (See page 331).

Chemically, air consists of a mixture of various gases and vapours. These are chiefly Oxygen and Nitrogen; but in addition, there are minute quantities of carbonic acid, argon, hydrogen, water vapour, ammonia, ozone, and suspended matters.

The oxygen and nitrogen exist, in the proportion by volume of 20·9 of oxygen to 79·1 of nitrogen, or of 23·16 grains of oxygen to 76·84 of nitrogen, by weight.

These two gases do not exist in chemical combination, but mechanically mixed. This is proved by the fact, that they do not exist in air in the proportion of their combining weights, or any multiple of these; that the proportion varies slightly at different parts; and that the air which is dissolved in water does not contain the nitrogen and oxygen in the proportion 4 to 1 (as in the atmosphere), 간석동오피 but in the proportion 1·87 to 1. This means that oxygen, being more soluble in water than nitrogen, has dissolved in a larger proportion; as it certainly would not have done, had the oxygen and nitrogen been chemically combined. The oxygen dissolved in water supplies fishes with the necessary oxygen for their respiratory processes. Similarly the oxygen in the atmosphere is its most essential constituent, being required in all processes of oxidation (i.e., combustion), whether in living organisms or in the inanimate world. Nitrogen serves as a diluting agent. It is incapable of101 supporting life alone; and many of the fatal accidents which have occurred through men descending deep wells without first testing, by means of a lit candle held well below them, the quality of the air near the bottom, have been due to an accumulation of nitrogen in the well.

Ozone is a condensed form of oxygen, which is present in minute quantities in pure air, and especially during a thunder-storm or after a fall of snow, and in the air near the sea. In it three volumes of oxygen are condensed so as to occupy two volumes. In this condensed condition it has powerful chemical affinities; often oxidising substances which oxygen cannot attack. It is generally absent from the close air of towns and dwelling houses, having been used up to oxidise the organic matter present in these places. Air without it is said to be “devitalised”; and ozone has been described as the scavenger of the air.

Ozone can be produced by hanging a piece of moist phosphorus in a room; and it is stated by Dr. Daubeny, that part of the oxygen given out by plants, especially by scented flowering plants, is in the condition of ozone. A small quantity is produced when an electrical machine is worked; its presence is evidenced by a peculiar smell (the name ozone is derived from the Greek word for smell).

Test of Ozone in Air.—Traces of ozone in air are detected by exposing strips of blotting paper moistened with a mixture of a solution of potassic iodide and starch. If ozone is present, the paper assumes a blue tint, due to the liberation of iodine, and its combination with the starch. Other acid gases may, however, produce the same effect. A second test should, therefore, be tried. Soak red litmus paper with a very dilute solution of potassic iodide, and expose as before. Potassic oxide is produced if ozone is present, and this turns the litmus blue.

Aqueous Vapour is always present in air, though the amount varies greatly. It is invisible in the ordinary condition, but by condensation becomes cloud or fog, rain, snow, or hail. The quantity of moisture present varies with the temperature of the air; the higher the temperature, the more water can be vaporised, without the point of saturation being reached. An increase of 27° Fahr. doubles the capacity of air for moisture. The amount of moisture that would saturate air at 50° Fahr. only gives 71 per cent. of the saturation amount at 60° Fahr. The amount of moisture is estimated by the hygrometer (page 240).

Air saturated with moisture at 32° Fahr., holds vapour equal to 1 ∕ 160 of its weight; at 59° it holds 1 ∕ 80, at 86° 1 ∕ 40, at 113° 1 ∕ 20, and at 140° 1 ∕ 10.