si: 'even if', 'granting that'. — bona aetas: 'the good time of life', i.e. youth. Tischer qu. Varro de Re Rustica 2, 6, 2 mares feminaeque bona aetate = 'young'. For bona aetas = homines bona aetate cf. n. on 26 원주임플란트 senectus. — ut diximus: not expressly, but the opinion is implied in 44, 45. — Turpione Ambivio: L. Ambivius Turpio was the most famous actor of Cato's time, and appeared especially in Terence's plays. In old Latin commonly, occasionally in the Latin of the best period, and often in Tacitus, the cognomen is placed before the nomen when the praenomen is not mentioned. Cf. Att. 11, 12, 1 Balbo Cornelio. The usage is more common in Cicero's writings than in those of his contemporaries. — prima cavea: 'the lower tier'. The later Roman theatres consisted of semicircular or elliptic galleries, with rising tiers of seats; the level space partially enclosed by the curve was the orchestra, which was bounded by the stage in front. There can be little doubt that Cicero is guilty of an anachronism here; his words do not suit the circumstances of Cato's time. Till nearly the end of the Republic the theatres were rude structures of wood, put up temporarily; it is even doubtful whether they contained seats for the audience. Cato himself frustrated an attempt to establish a permanent theatre. — propter: 'close by'. The adverbial use of propter (rarely, if ever, met with outside of Cicero) is denied by some scholars, but is well attested by MSS. here and elsewhere. — tantum ... est: these words qualify delectatur.

49. illa: put for illud, as in Greek ταυτα and ταδε are often put for τουτο and τοδε. The words from animum to the end of the sentence are explanatory of illa. — quanti: 'how valuable!' but the word may have exactly the opposite meaning if the context require it; thus in N.D. 1, 55 and Rep. 6, 25 the sense is 'how worthless!' — stipendiis: 'campaigns'. The four words from libidinis to inimicitiarum are to be taken in pairs, while cupiditatum sums them up and is in apposition to all. — secum esse: cf. Tusc. 1, 75; Pers. 4, 52 tecum habita. — si ... aliquod: the sense is scarcely different from that of si ... quod; the distinction is as slight as that in English between 'if' followed by 'some', and 'if' followed by 'any'. Cf. n. on Lael. 24 si quando aliquid. — pabulum: for the metaphorical sense rendered less harsh by tamquam, cf. Acad. 2, 127; Tusc. 5, 66 pastus animorum. — studi: an explanatory genitive dependent on pabulum. — otiosa senectute: 'leisured age'; otium in the Latin of Cicero does not imply idleness, but freedom from public business and opportunity for the indulgence of literary and scientific tastes. — videbamus: for the tense cf. Lael. 37 Gracchum rem publicam vexantem ab amicis derelictum videbamus, i.e. 'we saw over a considerable period'. See also 50, 79. — in studio etc.: 'busied with the task of almost measuring bit by bit (di-metiendi) the heavens and the earth'. For the sense cf. Hor. Od. 1, 28 (of Archytas). — Gallum: consul in 157 B.C., famous as an astronomer and as the first Roman who predicted an eclipse before the battle of Pydna. See Liv. 44, 37.

P. 21 — describere: technically used of the drawing of mathematical figures. Ingredior often has an infinitive dependent on it even in the best Latin; e.g. Cic. Top. 1 nos maiores res scribere ingressos.

50. acutis: requiring keenness of intellect. — Naevius: see n. on 20. — Truculento ... Pseudolo: these plays of Plautus (lived from 254 to 184 B.C.) we still possess. The Truculentus is so named from one of the characters, a slave of savage disposition who is wheedled; the Pseudolus from a cheating slave. The latter name is commonly supposed to be a transcription from a Greek word ψευδυλος, which however nowhere occurs; and as the change from Greek υ to Latin o is not found before l, Corssen assumes ψευδαλος as the original word. The form Pseudulus of the name is probably later than Pseudolus. — Livium: Livius Andronicus, the founder of Latin literature (lived from about 285 to 204 B.C.), who translated the Odyssey, also many Greek tragedies. Livius was a Greek captured by Livius Salinator at Tarentum in 275 B.C.; for a time he was the slave of Livius, and, according to custom, took his name when set free. For an account of his writings see Cruttwell's Hist. of Roman Literature, Ch. 3; Sellar, Roman Poets of the Rep., Ch. 3. — docuisset: 'had brought on to the stage'. Docere (like διδασκειν in Greek, which has the same use) meant originally to instruct the performers in the play. — Centone Tuditanoque consulibus: i.e. in 240 B.C. The use of que here is noticeable; when a date is given by reference to the consuls of the year it is usual to insert et (not que or atque, which rarely occur) between the two names, if only the cognomina (as here) be given. If the full names be given, then they are put side by side without et. Cf. n. on 10. — Crassi: see n. on 27. — pontifici et civilis iuris: the ius pontificium regarded mainly the proper modes of conducting religious ceremonial. Ius civile, which is often used to denote the whole body of Roman Law, here includes only the secular portion of that Law. Cf. n. on 38. — huius P. Scipionis: 'the present P. Scipio'. So in 14 hi consules 'the present consuls'; Rep. 1, 14 Africanus hic, Pauli filius, and often. The P. Scipio who is meant here is not Africanus, but Nasica Corculum. — flagrantis: 'all aglow'; so ardere studio in Acad. 2, 65. — senes: = cum senes essent, so senem below. — suadae medullam: 'the essence (lit. marrow) of persuasiveness'. The lines of Ennius are preserved by Cicero, Brut. 58. Suada is a translation of πειθω, which the Greek rhetoricians declared to be the end and aim of oratory. This Cethegus was consul in 204 and in 203 defeated Mago in the N. of Italy. — exerceri: here reflexive in meaning. A. 111, n. 1; G. 209; H. 465. — videbamus: see n. on 49. — comparandae: for the idea of possibility which the gerundive sometimes has (but only in negative sentences or interrogative sentences implying a negative answer, and in conditional clauses) see Madvig, 420, Obs.; Roby, 1403. — haec quidem: a short summary of the preceding arguments, preparatory to a transition to a new subject, introduced by venio nunc ad. The succession of two clauses both containing quidem seems awkward, but occurs in Fin. 5, 80 and elsewhere. — honestum sit: 'does him honor'. — ut ante dixi: in 26, where see the notes. — potest esse: Meissner (n. on 27) says that Cicero's rule is to say potest esse, debet esse and the like, not esse potest and the like. It is true that esse in such cases is very seldom separated from the word on which it depends, but esse potest is just as common as potest esse; the difference to the sense is one of emphasis only, the esse having more emphasis thrown on it in the latter case.

51. mihi ... videntur: see Introd. — habent rationem cum: 'they have their reckonings with', 'their dealings with'; a phrase of book-keeping. — imperium: so Verg. Georg. 1, 99 exercetque frequens tellurem atque imperat agris; ib. 2, 369 dura exerce imperia et ramos compesce fluentes; Tac. Germ. 26 sola terrae seges imperatur. — sed alias ... faenore: put for sed semper cum faenore, alias minore, plerumque maiore. — vis ac natura: 'powers and constitution'. These two words are very often used by Cic. together, as in Fin. 1, 50 vis ac natura rerum. — gremio: so Lucret. 1, 250 pereunt imbres ubi eos pater aether In gremium matris terrai praecipitavit, imitated by Verg. Georg. 2, 325. — mollito ac subacto: i.e. by the plough. Subigere, 'subdue', is a technical word of agriculture; so Verg. Georg. 2, 50 scrobibus subactis; see also below, 59.

P. 22 — occaecatum: 'hidden'. Caecus has the sense of 'unseen' as well as that of 'unseeing' or 'blind'. — occatio: Cicero's derivation, as well as Varro's (De Re Rust. 1, 31, 1) from occidere, because the earth is cut up, is unsound. Occa is rastrum, probably from its sharp points (root ak-); occatio therefore is 'harrowing'. — vapore: 'heat'. This word has not in the best Latin the meaning of our 'vapor'. — compressu: a word found only here in Cicero's writings and elsewhere in Latin only in the ablative case, like so many other nouns whose stem ends in -u. — diffundit et elicit: 'expands and lures forth'. — herbescentem: this word occurs nowhere else in Latin. — nixa: A. 254, b; G. 403, Rem. 3; H. 425, 1, 1), n. — fibris stirpium: so Tusc. 3, 13 radicum fibras. — geniculato: 'knotted'. The verb geniculo, from genu, scarcely occurs excepting in the passive participle, which is always used, as here, of plants. So Plin. Nat. Hist. 16, 158 geniculata cetera gracilitas nodisque distincta, speaking of the harundo. — spici: besides spica, the forms spicum and spicus are occasionally found. Spici here is explanatory frugem. — vallo: for the metaphor compare N.D. 2, 143 munitae sunt palpebrae tamquam vallo pilorum; Lucr. 2, 537.

52. quid ego ... commemorem: this and similar formulae for passing to a new subject are common; cf. 53 quid ego ... proferam etc.; often nam precedes the quid, as in Lael. 104. The ego has a slight emphasis. Cato implies that his own devotion to grape-culture was so well known as not to need description. — ortus satus incrementa: 'origin, cultivation, and growth'. For the omission of the copula see n. on 53. — ut: final, and slightly elliptic ('I say this that etc.'); so in 6 (where see n.), 24, 56, 59, 82. — requietem: the best MSS. of Cic. sometimes give the other form requiem, as in Arch. 13. — vim ipsam: 'the inherent energy'. — omnium ... terra: a common periphrasis for 'all plants'; cf. e.g. N.D. 2, 120. The Latin has no one word to comprehend all vegetable products. — quae ... procreet: 'able to generate'. — tantulo: strictly elliptic, implying quantulum re vera est. In such uses tantus and tantulus differ slightly from magnus and parvus; they are more emphatic. — acini vinaceo: 'a grape-stone'. — minutissimis: used here for minimis. Strictly speaking minutus ought to be used of things which are fragments of larger things, minutus being really the participle passive of minuo. In a well-known passage (Orat. 94) Cic. himself calls attention to the theoretical incorrectness of the use, which, however, is found throughout Latin literature. Cf. 46 pocula minuta; also below, 85 minuti philosophi. — malleoli: vine-cuttings; so called because a portion of the parent stem was cut away with the new shoot, leaving the cutting in the shape of a mallet. — plantae: 'suckers', shoots springing out of the trunk. — sarmenta: 'scions', shoots cut from branches not from the trunk. — viviradices: 'quicksets', new plants formed by dividing the roots of the mother plant. — propagines: 'layers', new plants formed by rooting a shoot in the earth without severing it from the parent plant; Verg. Georg. 2, 26. — eadem: n. on 4 eandem. — claviculis: cf. N.D. 2, 120 vites sic claviculis. — ars agricolarum: agricolae arte freti, a strong instance of the abstract put for the concrete.

53. eis: sc. sarmentis, those which have not been pruned away by the knife. — exsistit: 'springs up'. Exsistere in good Latin never has the meaning of our 'exist', i.e. 'to be in existence', but always means 'to come into existence'. — articulos: 'joints'; cf. 51 culmo geniculato. The word tamquam softens the metaphor in articuli, which would properly be used only of the joints in the limbs of animals. — gemma: Cicero took the meaning 'gem' or 'jewel' to be the primary sense of gemma and considered that the application to a bud was metaphorical. See the well-known passages, Orat. 81 and De Or. 3, 155. — vestita pampinis: 'arrayed in the young foliage'. — fructu ... aspectu: ablatives of respect, like gustatu above. — capitum iugatio: 'the linking together of their tops'; i.e. the uniting of the tops of the stakes by cross-stakes. So the editors; but Conington on Verg. Georg. 2, 355 seems to take capita of the top-foliage of the vines, an interpetation which is quite possible. Those editors are certainly wrong who remove the comma after iugatio and place it after religatio, as though et were omitted between the two words. In enumerations of more than two things Cic. either omits the copula altogether or inserts it before each word after the first; but in enumerating two things et cannot be omitted, except where there are several sets or pairs of things. Cf. n. on 13. — religatio: i.e. the tying down of shoots so as to cause them to take root in the earth. Religatio seems to occur only here.

P. 23 — aliorum immissio: 'the granting of free scope to others'. Immissio scarcely occurs elsewhere in good Latin. The metaphor is from letting loose the reins in driving; cf. Verg. Georg. 2, 364; Plin. N.H. 16, 141 cupressus immittitur in perticas asseresque amputatione ramorum; Varro, R.R. 1, 31, 1 vitis immittitur ad uvas pariendas. Some, referring to Columella de Arbor, c. 7, take the word to mean the setting in the earth of a shoot in order that it may take root before being separated from the parent stem. The context, however, is against this interpretation. — irrigationes etc.: the plurals denote more prominently than singulars would the repetition of the actions expressed by these words. — repastinationes: 'repeated hoeings'. The pastinum was a kind of pitchfork, used for turning over the ground round about the vines, particularly when the young plants were being put in. — multo terra fecundior: see n. on 3 parum ... auctoritatis.

54. in eo libro: see Introd. — doctus: often used of poets, not only by Cicero but by most other Latin writers, more particularly by the elegiac poets; see also n. on 13. — Hesiodus: the oldest Greek poet after Homer. The poem referred to here is the Εργα και ‛Ημεραι which we still possess, along with the Theogony and the Shield of Heracles. — cum: concessive. — saeculis: 'generations', as in 24. — fuit: = vixit. — Laerten: the passage referred to is no doubt the touching scene in Odyss. 24, 226, where Odysseus, after killing the suitors, finds his unhappy old father toiling in his garden. In that passage nothing is said of manuring. — lenientem: see n. on 11 dividenti. — colentem etc.: the introduction of another participle to explain lenientem is far from elegant. Cultione agri or something of the kind might have been expected. The collocation of appetentem with occupatum in 56 is no less awkward. — facit: n. on 3 facimus. — res rusticae laetae sunt: 'the farmer's life is gladdened'. — apium: this form is oftener found in the best MSS., of prose writers at least, than the other form apum, which probably was not used by Cic. — omnium: = omnis generis. — consitiones ... insitiones: 'planting ... grafting'. On the varieties of grafting and the skill required for it see Verg. Georg. 2, 73 seq.

55. possum: see n. on 24. — ignoscetis: 'you will excuse (me)'. — provectus sum: 'I have been carried away'. Cicero often uses prolabi in the same sense. — in hac ... consumpsit: Cic. probably never, as later writers did, used consumere with a simple ablative. — Curius: see n. on 15. — a me: = a mea villa; cf. n. on 3 apud quem. — admirari satis non possum: a favorite form of expression with Cicero; e.g. De Or. 1, 165. — disciplinam: 'morals'; literally 'teaching'.

56. Curio: Plutarch, Cat. 2, says the ambassadors found him cooking a dinner of herbs, and that Curius sent them away with the remark that a man who dined in that way had no need of gold. The present was not brought as a bribe, since the incident took place after the war. Curius had become patronus of the Samnites, and they were bringing the customary offering of clientes; see Rep. 3, 40. — ne: here = num, a rare use; so Fin. 3, 44; Acad. 2, 116. — sed venio ad: so in 51 venio nunc ad. Redeo ad (see n. on 32) might have been expected here. — in agris erant: 'lived on their farms'. For erant cf. n. on 21 sunt. — id est senes: cf. 19 n. on senatum. — si quidem: often written as one word siquidem = ειπερ. — aranti: emphatic position. — Cincinnato: L. Quinctius Cincinnatus is said to have been dictator twice; in 458 B.C., when he saved the Roman army, which was surrounded by the Aequians, and ended the war in sixteen days from his appointment; in 439, when Maelius was killed and Cincinnatus was eighty years old. In our passage Cic. seems to assume only one dictatorship. The story of Cincinnatus at the plough is told in Livy 3, 26. — factum: the technical term was dicere dictatorem, since he was nominated by the consul on the advice of the senate. — dictatoris: in apposition with cuius.

P. 24 — Maelium: a rich plebeian, who distributed corn in time of famine and was charged with courting the people in order to make himself a king. Ahala summoned him before the dictator, and because he did not immediately obey, killed him with his own hand. For this, Ahala became one of the heroes of his nation. See Liv. 4, 13. Cicero often mentions him with praise. Cf. in Catil. I. 3; p. Sestio 143, etc. — appetentem: = quia appetebat; so occupatum = cum occupasset. — viatores: literally 'travellers', so 'messengers'. They formed a regularly organized corporation at Rome and were in attendance on many of the magistrates. Those officers who had the fasces had also lictors, who, however, generally remained in close attendance and were not despatched on distant errands. The statement of Cic. in the text is repeated almost verbatim by Plin. N.H. 18, 21. — miserabilis: 'to be pitied'. The word does not quite answer to our 'miserable'. — agri cultione: a rare expression, found elsewhere only in Verr. 3, 226; then not again till the 'Fathers'. — haud scio an nulla: since haud scio an is affirmative in Cicero, not negative as in some later writers, nulla must be read here, not ulla. Cf. 73 haud scio an melius Ennius, 'probably Ennius speaks better'; also 74 incertium an hoc ipso die, 'possibly to-day'. Roby, 2256; G. 459, Rem.; H. 529, II. 3, 20, n. 2. — quam dixi: = de qua dixi, as in 53. — saturitate: the word is said to occur nowhere else in Latin. — quidam: i.e. the authors of the tertia vituperatio senectutis, whom Cato refutes in 39, 59. — porco ... gallina: these words are used collectively, as rosa often is; so Fin. 2, 65 potantem in rosa Thorium. — iam: 'further'. — succidiam alteram: 'a second meat-supply'. The word seems to be connected with caedo, and probably originally meant 'slaughter'. In a fragment of Cato preserved by Gellius 13, 24, 12 (in some editions 13, 25, 12) we find succidias humanas facere. Varro, R.R. 2, 14 has the word in the sense of 'meat'. — conditiora facit: 'adds a zest to'; cf. condita in 10. — supervacaneis operis: 'by the use of spare time'; literally 'by means of toils that are left over', i.e. after completing the ordinary work of the farm.

57. ordinibus: cf. 59 ordines. — brevi praecidam: 'I will cut the matter short', for praecidam (sc. rem or sermonem) cf. Acad. 2, 133 praecide (sc. sermonem); for brevi (= 'in brief', εν βραχει) cf. De Or. 1, 34 ne plura consecter comprehendam brevi. — usu uberius: cf. 53 fructu laetius ... aspectu pulchrius. — ad quem ... retardat: some have thought that there is zeugma here, supposing ad to be suited only to invitat, not to retardat. That this is not the case is clear from such passages as Caes. B.G. 7, 26, 2 palus Romanos ad insequendum tardabat (= tardos faciebat); Cic. Sull. 49 nullius amicitia ad pericula propulsanda impedimur. On fruendum see Madvig, 421, a, Obs. 2 and 265, Obs. 2; G. 428, Rem. 3, exc.; H. 544, 2, n. 5. — invitat atque allectat: one of the 'doublets' of which Cicero is so fond; cf. Lael. 99 allectant et invitant.

58. sibi habeant: sc. iuvenes; contemptuous, as in Lael. 18 sibi habeant sapientiae nomen Sull. 26 sibi haberent honores, sibi imperia etc.; cf. the formula of Roman divorce, tu tuas res tibi habeto. — hastas: in practising, the point was covered by a button, pila; cf. Liv. 26, 51 praepilatis missilibus iaculati sunt. — clavam: cf. Vegetius de Re Mil. 1, 11 clavas ligneas pro gladiis tironibus dabant, eoque modo exercebantur ad palos; Iuv. 6, 246. The palus is called stipes by Martial 7, 32. — pilam ... venationes ... cursus: all national amusements, well known to readers of Horace; see Becker's Gallus. Venationes, em. for nataliones. — talos ... tesseras: tali, 'knucklebones', were oblong, and rounded at the two ends; the sides were numbered 1 and 6 (1 being opposite to 6), 3 and 4. Four tali were used at a time and they, like the tesserae, were generally thrown from a box, fritillus. The tesserae, of which three were used at a time, were cubes, with the sides numbered from 1 to 6 in such a way that the numbers on two opposite sides taken together always made 7. A separate name was used by dicers for almost every possible throw of the tesserae and tali. The two best known are canis, when all the dice turned up with the same number uppermost; and venus, when they all showed different numbers. The word alea was general and applicable to games of chance of every kind. These games, which were forbidden by many ineffectual laws ('vetita legibus alea') were held to be permissible for old men; see Mayor on Iuv. 14, 4. — id ipsum: sc. faciunt; the omission of facere is not uncommon. Roby, 1441; H. 368, 3, n. 1. — ut: em. for ordinary readings unum and utrum.

59. legite: 'continue to read'. Cf. De Or. 1, 34 pergite, ut facitis, adulescentes. In Tusc. 2, 62 it is stated that Africanus was a great reader of Xenophon.